Encyclopedia of Historic Masonry Restoration

Ice damming

As ice builds up, water can actually work its way upwards. Naturally, people tend to think of water as always running downwards, following the direction of gravity, but there are circumstances such as ice damming where when temperatures fluctuate around freezing, more or less a… Read More »Ice damming

Infill, brick

Brick infills are common where interior building modifications change the layout or remove existing doors or windows.  These changes are most often driven by changes to the interior could also happen as related to exterior building modifications. The type of infill below is referred to… Read More »Infill, brick

Iron oxide

Iron oxide is the type of rust with which people are most farmiliar. Oxidation is a process that naturally occurs with most metals, not just to iron.  In simple terms, it is a process where an electron is removed,  naturally,  in the case of iron. … Read More »Iron oxide