Encyclopedia of Historic Masonry Restoration

Carved ornate sandstone

Sandstone, like many types of natural stone is a common type of historic and moder masonry building materials.  Sandstone is a sedimentary stone, similiar to limestone but with a higher silica content.

Cast iron

Cast iron is a type of ferrous metal, similar to steel and the common iron, but there are some differences.  Cast iron has less maleability and can more brittle than mild steel.   Cast iron can be welded under a very specific constrained conditions but on… Read More »Cast iron

Cobblestone paving

Cobblestone paving is one of the few types of historically accurate stone masonry paving prior to the 20th century. The photo below shows an example of a cobblestone paved area between the sidewalk and the public street in Washington DC.  Cobblestone paving has some degree… Read More »Cobblestone paving

Commercial roofs, flat roofs

Flat roofs are generally considered to be commercial roof systems. A flat roof can technically be installed on a residential or industrial buildings but the flat roof products and product systems are marketed and sold for use on commercial buildings, primarily. Overall the subdiscipline of… Read More »Commercial roofs, flat roofs

Common bond brickwork

Common bond brickwork is similar to a running bond.  The difference between a running bond and a common bond is that there is a header course interspersed between several running bond courses, in a common bond.  The common bond is much stronger that a running… Read More »Common bond brickwork

Common brick, historic

A historic common brick is very different than a typical modern brick. Historic common bricks were solid, they had no perforation and were solid all the way through. They also had different dimensions than modern bricks. Historic bricks were fired in kilns, similar to modern… Read More »Common brick, historic

Copper sheet metal

Copper sheet metal panelling is installed as a building cladding at the building facade in the picture below.


A corbel is a type of architectural, usually aesthetically ornate in historic construction, superincumbent elements.    

Cornice, metal

Metal cornices are found at the top of most historic masonry buildings in Washington, DC. When in the Capitol Hill, Georgetown, and Dupont Circle neighborhoods you will see the architectural details are prolific.