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Encyclopedia of Historic Masonry Restoration

Modified bitumen, roofing

Modified bitumen roof membranes are one of the most common types of single-ply modern commercial roof membranes available. Other common alternatives include PVC, TPO, and metal roofing. By comparison, TPO is both durable, cost effective and easy to adjust and repair.  Modified bitumen is similar… Read More »Modified bitumen, roofing

Moisture Meter

Moisture meters are electronic devices, either digital or analog which can detect moisture levels in a variety of building material type substrates. Moisture meters are generally available in two or more main classes: penetrating and non-pentrating.  The penetrating type of moisture meters make small holes… Read More »Moisture Meter

Mold and Mildew

Mold and mildew are types of fungal growth that commonly occur on building materials where building materials have been exposed to hydration dration or unintended precipitation precipitation or leakage. Mold is a fungal growth that generally grows aggressively on carbon based building materials once hydrated,… Read More »Mold and Mildew


A multimeter is a type of electrical tester.  It can test a variety of characteristics of electricity, such as voltage, amperage, ohms resistance, and more.

Multiple Invention

Parallel Invention or Multiple Invention are theories that Humans including engineers and scientists can invent similar things in similar times in isolation from one another, as has happened many times in history.  Some examples include the use of bricks in building construction, agriculture in the… Read More »Multiple Invention