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Encyclopedia of Historic Masonry Restoration


Efflorescence is a chalky white-ish salt deposit left of the exposed face of masonry, concrete, and cementitious building assemblies. The following picture shows a painted brick screen wall with significant efflorescence. When a masonry building assembly is subject to or exposed to residual moisture in… Read More »Efflorescence

Egg and Dart

Egg and Dart is a architectural pattern common in the Washington DC historic neighborhoods such as Georgetown, Capitol Hill, and Dupont Circle. The pattern uses an oval and an interspersed vertical arrow between each circle. This type of pattern was carved in millwork and running… Read More »Egg and Dart

Electrogalvanization, zinc

The barnstar in the photo below is secured to the building’exterior brick facade using a threaded rod, washer, and a 3/4″ nut.  This hardware holds the star in tension to resist the lateral defection of the wall.  Ferrous exterior hardware should always be galvanized (or… Read More »Electrogalvanization, zinc

English bond brickwork

The English brick bond is extremely common in the United states.   Here in Washington DC it is not the very most common of all brick bonds, but it is still ubiquitous and found throughout the historic areas of the city.  By comparison, the Flemish bond… Read More »English bond brickwork

Escutcheon, architectural

An architectural eschutcheon is basically just a trim ring that covers the perimeter edge of a pipe, bar, or tube where the pipe or ither item penetrates through or mounts to a another surface. A picture below shows an example of a fire suppression sprinkler… Read More »Escutcheon, architectural

Exposed aggregate concrete

Exposed aggregate concrete is very similar to typical flatwork concrete, except the exposed face of concrete cream (a mixture of cement and fine aggregates pushed to the top of the exposed concrete surface at the finishing stage of pouring concrete) is washed away before concrete… Read More »Exposed aggregate concrete